One in 150 people are living in "modern slavery" in the Commonwealth, including New Zealand, Australia and some Pacific Islands, according to a new report by a human rights charity.
Walk Free's report was released in the same week the first person to be convicted of slavery in New Zealand was sent to jail.
It says just one-third of the 54 Commonwealth countries have criminalised forced marriage, and half have failed to criminalise the sexual exploitation of children.
Walk Free says the findings are unacceptable, and need to be addressed by leaders.
Walk Free co-founder Grace Forrest said, "While our prevalence estimates in 2018 were staggering, the Covid-19 pandemic has further increased vulnerability to modern slavery around the world.
"This report comes at a critical juncture - a time when the world is awakening to ongoing injustices, questioning historical inequalities and confronting unprecedented crises."
The report was released in the same week the first person to be convicted of slavery in New Zealand was sent to jail.
It breaks down issues by location. In the Pacific, it says modern slavery is reported in sectors with a high proportion of migrant labour, like hospitality and tourism, fishing, logging and horticulture.