The Ministry of Education says special education funding is not keeping up with demand and more needs to be done to improve the education of children from poor, Maori and Pasifika backgrounds.
In its briefing to incoming Education Minister Hekia Parata, the ministry called for improvements to the education system and to the way it worked with families.
The briefing said the sector needed better leadership and teaching, and better engagement of learners and their families.
It suggested reviews of resourcing for schools in poor areas, the work of early childhood centres and of the special education system.
Demand for special education is rising and was likely to require more funding so children did not miss out on the support they need, it said.
Higher tertiary fees for some suggested
The Education Ministry also told the Government that some tertiary institutions should be allowed to charge higher fees for their courses.
In its briefing to incoming Tertiary Education Minister Steven Joyce, the ministry said there were potential benefits in giving high-performing institutions more flexibility over fees for courses in high demand or result in high pay rates for graduates.
The Government regulates annual increases to tertiary fees and has held them to a maximum of 4 percent for each of the past four years.
The ministry's briefing also suggested linking more of tertiary institutions' funding to their success with Maori and Pasifika students.