New Caledonia's capital has released a first batch of 500 mosquitoes carrying the Wolbachia bacteria.
The release is part of a global campaign to combat mosquito-borne diseases like dengue, chikungunya and zika.
It's hoped the wolbachia bacteria will eventually spread across all the territory's mosquitoes.
The method has been successful in parts of Fiji, Kiribati and Vanuatu, and is expected to be applied in French Polynesia.
This year in New Caledonia dengue has claimed one life, forced the hospitalisation of hundreds of people and afflicted thousands more.