The Australian Medical Association has urged Prime Minister Scott Morrison to evacuate refugee families and children from Nauru to ensure their wellbeing.
Guardian Australia reported its President, Tony Bartone, sent a letter to Mr Morrison saying the situation on the island was a humanitarian emergency.
Dr Bartone called for a delegation of Australian doctors to be sent to Nauru to assess the health and wellbeing of detainees.
He said the association is also seeking assurances about the healthcare of asylum seekers in Papua New Guinea.
Dr Bartone has also written to all Australian federal parliamentarians asking them to support better healthcare for refugees and asylum seekers.
"There are now too many credible reports concerning the effects of long-term detention and uncertainty on the physical and mental health of asylum seekers," Dr Bartone said in the letter seen by the Guardian.
"The government must get fair dinkum and give these long-suffering asylum seeker children, many of whom are extremely ill, and their families a fair go - bring them to Australia for proper care in the best possible environment for their severe mental and physical health conditions."