The International Weightlifting Federation (IWF) was plagued by decades of corruption orchestrated by autocratic former president Tamas Ajan, according to an independent investigation.
Richard McLaren, the Canadian law professor whose findings in July 2016 led to Russia being banned from all international athletic competitions, including the Rio Olympics, led the investigation and told reporters on Thursday that the IWF was rife with corruption.
This included vote buying, doping cover-ups and more than $16 million in cash that cannot be accounted for.
Ajan has denied any wrongdoing.
"I found an organisation that had been subject for close to half a century to an autocratic leader who dictated through various control mechanisms everything that occurred within the organisation," McLaren said in a Zoom conference.
"His (Ajan) obsession with control made it a culture of fear that prevented a vibrant and robust sports administration.
"We found systemic government failures and corruption at the highest level of the IWF."
The 81-year-old Hungarian Ajan had been at the IWF since the mid 70s, serving first as secretary general and then as president from 2000 until his resignation in April.
The 121-page report was both scathing and meticulous in detailing the massive scale of corruption within the IWF while it was ruled by Ajan, who used "the tyranny of cash" as his main control mechanism.
The investigation found the primary sources of this cash were doping fines paid personally to Ajan and cash withdrawals of large amounts from the IWFG��s accounts, usually made just prior to major competitions or IWF congresses.
"It is absolutely impossible to determine how much of the cash collected or withdrawn was used for legitimate expenses," said McLaren.
"The McLaren Independent Investigation Team has determined that $10.4 million USD is unaccounted for."
McLaren described the IWF financial records as a "jumble of incomplete and inaccurate figures distorted by a failure to accurately record cash expenditures and revenues and disclose hidden bank accounts by Dr. Ajan".
The investigation found that some of that money was used for vote buying for the President and senior level positions of the Executive Board at the two most recent Electoral Congresses.
During the investigation McLaren's team also uncovered doping infractions with 40 positive adverse analytical findings hidden in the IWF records.
These include gold and silver medallists who have not had their samples dealt with.
McLaren said this information has been passed on to WADA for further investigation.
The culture of fear within the IWF continued even after Ajan's resignation.
McLaren said only two of five vice-presidents came forward, two of eight members of the executive board and only one of five presidents of continental federations.
Of the 20 member federation presidents and general secretaries contacted by McLaren's team, only four responded and only one provided significant information.
"The appetite for members and stakeholders of the IWF to come forward was practically non-existent. Only one current athlete spoke to my investigators," said McLaren.
On a visit to IWF headquarters in Budapest, 45 days after Ajan had been suspended, McLaren said is team found the former president still in his office.
"We witnessed him still carrying on with business as usual running the office, organising an executive board meeting having meetings with IWF financial advisors," said McLaren.