The United Nations Children's Fund is warning that cases of measles around the world have nearly trebled compared with the same period last year.
UNICEF said that had created the environment for major outbreaks of the disease.
A report by the children's charity shows 169 million children were not given a first dose of measles vaccine between 2010 and 2017.
Measles is a highly infectious viral illness that can lead to serious health complications - including infections of the lungs and brain - and is sometimes fatal.
Henrietta Fore, executive director at Unicef, said: "The measles virus will always find unvaccinated children.
"If we are serious about averting the spread of this dangerous but preventable disease, we need to vaccinate every child, in rich and poor countries alike," she said.
Health experts said children should have two doses of the vaccine to fully protect against the disease.
But, according to Unicef, a mixture of complacency, misinformation, scepticism about immunisations, and a lack of access to jabs has led to inadequate vaccination rates globally.
The report shows that between 2010 and 2017:
- The US topped the list for the number of unvaccinated children in high-income countries, with 2,593,000 missing the first dose of the vaccine
- The comparable figure for France was 600,000
- The UK came third, with 527,000 children not getting their first dose of the vaccine over the seven-year period
- In Nigeria, four million children under one did not get the first dose of the vaccine
Figures for the second dose of the measles vaccine "were even more alarming", Unicef said.
It found 20 countries in sub-Saharan Africa had not introduced a second dose, putting more than 17 million infants a year at a greater risk of getting measles as a child.
Ukraine, Madagascar and India have been worst affected by the disease so far this year, with tens of thousands of reported cases per million people.
In Madagascar 700 people have died of measles since September, many of them children.
Outbreaks have also hit Brazil, Pakistan and Yemen, while a spike in case numbers has been reported in the US and Thailand.
There have been recent measles' outbreaks in Australia and New Zealand.
Half a million UK children miss measles jab
The analysis by Unicef also reveals more than half a million children in the UK were not given a crucial measles jab between 2010 and 2017.
It comes as NHS chief Simon Stevens warned measles cases had almost quadrupled in England in just one year and urged families to get the vaccine.
He said people rejecting vaccines was a "growing public health time bomb" and warned that "vaccination deniers" had been gaining traction on social media.
Prof Beate Kampmann, at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, described the figures as a "wake-up call."
She said: "One thing is certain though: A single person with measles will be able to infect 90 other people who are not immune."
Public Health England said though the overall risk to the public in England was low, unimmunised people were in danger of catching the disease while outbreaks continued in Europe.
The Health and Social Care Secretary, Matt Hancock, has called for new legislation to force social media companies to remove content promoting false information about vaccines.
Meanwhile, the United States has confirmed 695 measles cases so far this year, the highest incidence recorded since the country declared it had eliminated the virus in 2000.