Huge crowds gathered in Vatican City to see a historic ceremony where two popes - John Paul II and John XXIII - were declared saints.
A Mass co-celebrated by Pope Francis and his predecessor Benedict was watched by roughly one million pilgrims and a vast TV and radio audience.
Nearly 100 foreign delegations attended, including royal dignitaries and heads of state and government.
The BBC reports it was the first time two popes have been canonised at the same time.
Correspondents said the move is seen as an attempt to unite conservative and reformist camps within the Roman Catholic Church.
In his sermon, Pope Francis paid tribute to the two new saints as "men of courage".
"They were priests, bishops and popes of the 20th Century," he said.
"They lived through the tragic events of that century, but they were not overwhelmed by them. For them, God was more powerful."
Special bus, train and boat services ferried pilgrims to Rome for the two-hour ceremony.
Some had bagged places to sleep overnight as close as possible to St Peter's Square, hoping to be among the first in when it opened to the public.
Giant screens were set up in nearby streets and elsewhere in the city for those unable to get into the square.
The Vatican confirmed on Saturday that Benedict XVI - now officially titled Pope Emeritus - would make a rare public appearance alongside his successor.
Benedict XVI, 87, became the first pope to resign for 600 years when he quit for health reasons a year ago.
The process of saint-making is usually long and very costly. But John Paul II, whose reign ended in 2005 after 26 years, has been fast-tracked to sainthood in just nine years.