A handheld device to assess if a rugby player has concussion is the ultimate goal of a new pitch side test to diagnose concussion and brain injuries in England.
Premiership and Championship players will take part in the programme with saliva and urine samples to be collected after studies showed they could provide swift indicators of head injuries.
It could ultimately lead to a handheld device to assess if a player is fit to play on.
During matches in 2017-18, players with confirmed or suspected concussion will provide saliva samples immediately following the injury and will give follow-up samples as they go through the return-to-play protocol.
These will be compared to players from the same game who did not suffer head injuries and those who had other injuries.
The study will run alongside the existing Head Injury Assessments, but if the results support those found in laboratory tests, it could eventually see tests being carried out pitch-side on a device.
It is being carried out by the University of Birmingham, in association with the Rugby Football Union (RFU), Premiership Rugby and the Rugby Players' Association.
Neurosurgeon Professor Tony Belli, who is leading the study, said: "The University of Birmingham recently made a significant breakthrough after identifying molecules, which can be found in saliva and act as biomarkers to indicate whether the brain has suffered injury.
"If these biomarkers are found reliable, we can continue our work with industrial partners with the hope to have a device available within the next two years that will instantaneously diagnose concussion on the pitch-side with the same accuracy as in the laboratory - a major step forward for both sport and medicine."
Dr Simon Kemp, the RFU's chief medical officer, added: "this is an important addition to the breadth of research we are undertaking into concussion.
"There is currently no reliable or proven biomarker or objective test for the diagnosis of concussion and this lack of objectivity is the biggest challenge facing medical professional in dealing with this type of injury."