The Security Intelligence Service (SIS) has carried out surveillance without a warrant, the minister responsible for the spy agency has confirmed.
The new powers were granted to the agency in a 2014 anti-terror law change.
In the agency's annual review, SIS director Rebecca Kitteridge reported that one authorisation was granted between 1 July and 31 December 2015.
The minister, Chris Finlayson, would not confirm the circumstances that led to the authorisation but said the use of warrantless surveillance was pretty rare.
He said the warrants were issued in urgent or emergency situations.