Contents of the programmes

The contents are listed by running time, detail of material and name of the person speaking, where applicable.

'Actuality' means that the material is drawn from a 'live' or recorded programme or event.

On This Page

Part 1: A stirring thrills the air - the broad picture 1921-1935

Part 2: The on-air game - The story of radio sport 1921-1996

Part 3: Politics, war and progress  - The broad picture 1935 - 1949

Part 4: 'Theatre of the mind' - The story of drama and the serials

Part 5: The Cinderella service - The story of news

Part 6: The golden years - The broad picture 1949 to 1970

Part 7: Tuning up - The story of the YC stations, Concert Programme and the Symphony Orchestra

Part 8: Te Reo o te Tangata Whenua 'The voice of the people of the land' - the story of Maori radio

Part 9: Hauraki at sea - The beginning of private radio

Part 10: Public versus private - The broad picture 1970 - 1996

Part 1: A stirring thrills the air - the broad picture 1921-1935

0 minutes - 50 seconds Song: Hello my Dearie first broadcast on the evening of 17 November 1921 by Professor Jack, Physics Department, Dunedin University.

2' 10" A later Professor Jack broadcast heard in Wellington causes much excitement. Clive Drummond

3' 00" People laugh when pioneer broadcaster Lionel Slade claims he can hear 2LO London and America. He demonstrates radio at church bazaars. Onlookers can take home a 'hidden' gramophone if they can find it. Sceptics look under tables. Lionel Slade

4' 40"  The 1903 Wireless Telegraphy Act, says people must have licence to receive or transmit. New Zealand is first in world to anticipate the power of radio. Peter Downes (Broadcasting historian and National Programme Manager 1970s-80s). Peter Downes

5' 10" To get a receiving licence people must draw a circuit diagram and swear on the Bible not to reveal secrets overheard on air. John Stannage

6' 05" Enthusiasts share expensive earphones and build home crystal sets. James Hartstonge, Edna Gyde

7' 55" Reception is great – 100 watts covers Canterbury because there's no interference from electrical equipment. Hear America during the day on medium not shortwave – extraordinary!

8' 55" February 1922, station in Courtenay Place Wellington uses radio to create market, father of commercial radio. Representative for De Forrest Corp New York. Charles Forrest

9' 30" Records for broadcast rare early on and borrowed from shops. Microphone in front of sound box gives poor sound. Nimmos shop lent pianola. Clive Drummond

10' 40" Steel needle is in groove. Microphone is always live so they have to be be careful what they say.

11' 20" 1922 sees stations in Auckland, Dunedin and Christchurch and a second Wellington station in February. Signal is heard on Wellington harbour cruises with much dancing. Clive Drummond

12' 00" 1923 and 11 stations are on air, some in provinces.

12' 30" Radio Regulations 1923 create four regions around main centres. The licence fee is 5/- or 20/- for transmitter. Only education or information content is allowed – no advertising, no controversy, which is seen as an impediment to genuine news service. Peter Downes

14' 35" One family provides the whole evening's entertainment: dad on trombone, mum on piano etc all in evening dress and bow tie. Programme details are publicised in press. Walter Sinton

15' 55" Auckland station pauses at 9.00pm for supper to allow the generator to cool. John Gordon

16' 20" 1925, an authority to run radio is tendered out by government to Radio Broadcasting Company. RBC buys out main centre stations and creates lYA, 2YA, 3YA, 4YA funded by licence fee. Remaining 'B' stations survive on donations but no advertising.

17' 25" Buyout of 2YK Wellington protested in verse. Peter Downes

18' 10" John Prentice, Auckland, 1927 phone-in great success but no talk-back tiIl 1965.

19' 20" In 1920s New Zealand embraces radio rapidly. The same later, with TV. Seems it's our nature to adopt the new. Peter Downes

20' 20" Front off piano for broadcast and instructions to artists how to perform behind microphone.

21' 50" 1YA Auckland improvises talk from fish and chip newspaper. Tom Venables, Bill Huggins

23' 15" A 'mechanical musical instruments' restriction encourages live artists but extends to gramophones and causes problems.

24' 10" Fees to 'standard' artists 1 guinea but 'novelty' artists half fee – receives no complaints.

25' 15" Description of crowd for studio auditions and interminable performance, Sundays France St studio Auckland. Eric Waters

27' 40" Programme organiser in Auckland gets only 3 guineas a week for artists' fees, so pleads with music teachers and pupils to perform for nothing. Dudley Wrathal

29' 00" Grace Green on 'B' stations, later worked at 3ZB Christchurch, starts work before 7am, breaks at midday, then back at 5pm. Bikes home after midnight 7 days a week. Two staff. Grace Green

30' 15" Clive Drummond signs off "goooood night" manager objects, announcers on YA must be anonymous. Listener sends poem. Peter Downes

31' 55" When Drummond walks Lambton Quay, heads turn, he's held in high esteem.

33' 00" Children's presenters are exception to anonymity rule, more informality allowed. Very popular with all age-groups. Wellington children's presenter Aunt Gwen's wedding is first live wedding broadcast. Peter Downes

33' 50" Napier presenter describes a typical children's programme. Winifred McCarthy

35' 50" Spread of stations means radio can be used as information source in civil emergency. 1929 Murchison earthquake and Napier 1931. First manager West Coast uses shortwave and local station to feed news of Napier to listeners and newspapers Mic Spiers manager 3ZR. Mic Spiers

37' 15" Letter praising radio's role in Napier quake. Peter Downes

38' 40" Arctic explorer Admiral Byrd's broadcast from Dunedin 1930 is linked to the world. Great technical feat. Ken Collins

40' 20" 1934 first recording equipment. In early 1930s Radio Broadcasting Company Head A.R. Harris visits USA, brings back first acetate serial Abroad with the Lockharts, forerunner of soap operas. Peter Downes

41' 45" Actuality: Abroad with the Lockharts

42' 20" 1928 New electronic pick-up allows far more technical control.

42' 45" Radio Broadcasting Company (RBC) replaced by government-appointed Radio Broadcasting Board (RBB). This brings full government control of radio a step nearer.

43' 00" In spite of the depression, licences increase from 8,500 in 1930 to 152,000 in 1935.

43' 20" Role of radio in depression: is common bond, radio stations in small towns, community involvement on air, radios in work camps. Alwyn Owen

44' 40" Actuality: First round-the-world Christmas message 1932, written by Rudyard Kipling with radio theme. King George V

45' 45" Reconstruction of first broadcast by Professor Jack, and Jack's vision for radio from Otago Daily Times, 1921

Part 2: The on-air game - The story of radio sport 1921-1996

0' 00" Cellphone call UK to NZ. Martin Crowe

0' 50" Description of NZ coverage All Blacks 'Invincibles' final game 1924 UK tour, Twickenham. (no commentary, score only). Clive Drummond

1' 40" Earliest sports commentary is from Nelson station 1923 Australasian sculling champs.

2' 15" First rugby commentaries start in Christchurch 1926. Alan Allardyce

3' 00" Probable world-first commentary: 1926 Canterbury Jockey Club 3-day meeting. Done from haystack. Alan Allardyce

3' 30" 1929: Four-year ban on race commentaries. Commentators describe from outside the ground.

4' 00" Bookies flourishing. John Proudfoot

5' 00" 1930 Threat to ban broadcast of Saturday matches of touring British Isles teams to protect local game attendance. Ban does not happen.

5' 25" Wheelbarrow trundles transmitter around golf course 1932.

5' 55" Gisborne's Tom Heeney fights Gene Tunney for world boxing championship 1928. Bout transcribed from Morse Code. Clive Drummond

7' 00" 500 fan letters for Gordon Hutter's wrestling commentaries 1929.

7' 50" Commentators now popular personalities. Winston McCarthy

8' 50" Actuality: Commentary Kiwi rugby tour of UK 1946. Winston McCarthy

9' 35" NZBS establishes sports section early 1950s. Charles Martin

11' 25" 1952 Helsinki Olympic Games coverage. Lance Cross

12' 20" 1953 telegram coverage, NZ cricket in South Africa explained. Charles Martin

13' 30" Actuality: Telegram coverage NZ cricket in South Africa. Lance Cross

14' 15" 1956 Springbok rugby tour electrifies New Zealand. Charles Martin

15' 30" Actuality: Peter Jones 'I'm buggered' comment. Peter Jones

15' 40" Jones comment deleted from repeat broadcast. Charles Martin

16' 20" High quality Post Office lines used from early 1950s.

16' 45" 1960s: demands of long rugby tours. Bob Irvine

17' 50" TV and private radio alter sports broadcast styles. Charles Martin

18' 10" Actuality: Tim Bickerstaff sports talk back. Tim Bickerstaff

18' 40" Impact of private radio on sports broadcasting. Tim Bickerstaff

21' 15" 1970s-style sports journalism defined, Charles Martin

22' 00" Actuality: Introduction to 'Sports Round-up'.

22' 15" 1952 embryo 'Sports Round-up' matures by December 1965. Ron Findlay

24' 10" New technology helping in 1970s. Rob Crabtree

24' 55" Actuality: Netball commentary 1988.

25' 30" Development of netball on radio and male domination of sports journalism.

28' 35" Growth of yachting broadcasting. Peter Montgomery

30' 20" Actuality: Rugby game cancellation, Hamilton, during Springbok tour 1981. John Howson

31' 20" 1981 Springbok tour and how sports journalists cope with controversy and civil disorder. John Howson

35' 00" Actuality: Racing commentary 1963 Wellington Cup. Peter Kelly

35' 30" Kelly, Tonks, Murtha, household names on racing network but racing goes to Radio Pacific in mid 1980s. Rob Crabtree

37' 30" Actuality: John Wright scoring century on NZ cricket tour of Pakistan. Bryan Waddle

38' 00" Severe technical limitations affecting cricket commentating in three Third World countries. Difficulties broadcasting Richard Hadlee breaking test wicket record. Bryan Waddle

41' 15" Actuality: Richard Hadlee breaking test wicket record, Bangalore, India. Bryan Waddle

42' 00" Mid 1980s start of private sports network 'Independent Radio Sport' (IRS). John Howson

44' 50" RNZ sports broadcasters welcome private competition. Gary Ahern

45' 50" After 1990 Commonwealth Games, funding cuts to Public Radio cause staff cuts and trimming of sports section. Ron Findlay

47' 00" 'Sports Round-up' threatened, but saved by joint sponsorship BNZ Mobil Comalco. John Howson

48' 10" Commercial arm of Public Radio sold and 'Independent Radio Sport' takes over

Part 3: Politics, war and progress  - The broad picture 1935 - 1949

0' 00" Radio in childhood, 1930s – escaping reality and breaking rural isolation. Cath Tizard, Kate Harcourt

1' 05" Actuality: Town Hall 'community sing' to raise funds for the needy in the depression.

1' 30" Huge licence increase 1930-1935 from 8,500 to 152,000. One reason is technical developments in radio. Alwyn Owen

3' 15" 'Aunt Daisy' and Colin Scrimgeour hugely popular in early 1930s. First Labour government nationalises radio.

3' 30" Actuality: Early radio commercial.

4' 00" Commercial radio arrives in 1936 under Scrim's control. Government-run commercial radio is world first.

4' 55" Also a world first is, extended broadcast of Parliament.

5' 10" Actuality: Early broadcast from Parliament.

5' 30" Labour government uses radio as a mouthpiece and balance to conservative press. John Proudfoot

6' 15" Actuality: Scrim's 'Man in the street' session. (Scrim) Colin Scrimgeour

7' 20" Early 1930s impact of Scrim's 'Man in the street' session and origins of Auckland's 1ZR 'The friendly road' station. (Aunt Daisy) Maud Basham

8' 00" Non-denominational nature of 'The friendly road'. Colin Scrimgeour

9' 10" Scrim buys 1ZB for 50 pounds and 'The friendly road' moves to 1ZB. Colin Scrimgeour

11' 05" Government problems with controversy on radio involve visiting playwright G.B. Shaw and philosopher Krishnamurti.

11' 45" Lead-up and jamming of Scrim on 1ZB prior to 1935 election and controversy. Colin Scrimgeour

12' 10" Account from his book of engineer Tom Clarkson's jamming of 1ZB on orders from Post and Telegraph Department.

12' 35" Scrim's reaction to jamming. Colin Scrimgeour

13' 15" Tom Clarkson refuses to take public blame for jamming but keeps silent for forty-five years. Inquiry to jamming is a whitewash of government and Post and Telegraph Department.

14' 15" Setting up of NCBS 'National Commercial Broadcasting Service', in contrast to non-commercial NBS under Professor James Shelley. Colin Scrimgeour

15' 25" 1943: Scrim falls out with Prime Minister Peter Fraser and is dismissed. NBS and NCBS combined under professor James Shelley.

15' 50" Programme innovations in later 1930s such as Chuckles with Jerry. Dudley Wrathal

16' 40" Actuality: Chuckles With Jerry. Dudley Wrathal et al.

17' 20" Actuality: 'Turntable' jazz programme. Arthur Pearce

18' 00" 1937 'Turntable' starts and runs 40 years. Arthur Pearce

18' 55" 1937 bass Inia te Wiata discovered.

19' 30" Song: Swing Low Sweet Chariot. Inia te Wiata

20' 25" 1937 public service role of radio during polio epidemic. Peter Downes

20' 55" Actuality: Aunt Daisy's morning session. (Aunt Daisy) Maud Basham

22' 30" Aunt Daisy gets started late 1920s. Barbara Basham

23' 35" Aunt Daisy's habits in studio.

24' 30" Fans' reaction when Aunt Daisy travels. (Aunt Daisy) Maud Basham

25' 00" 1939, 5ZB 'station on rails' travels country and ends up at 1940 Centennial Exhibition Wellington. Lyell Boyes

27' 00" Mobile Unit Western Desert Africa World War 2. Noel Palmer

28' 10" In Wellington, Peter Harcourt processes recorded messages from troops. Has nervous breakdown. Kate Harcourt, Pat Harcourt

30' 05" Recording soldiers' messages and getting them back from front. Noel Palmer

31' 05" Actuality: Battle of Alamein report. Arch Curry

32' 05" Importance of following war's progress on radio in back-blocks. Kate Harcourt

32' 40" Actuality: War news bulletin.

33' 00" Short wave enthusiasts relay news of prisoners of war by monitoring enemy radio traffic.

34' 05" War restrictions on radio and censorship

35' 05" Actuality: Home front camp concerts for troops. Jean McPherson

36' 10" Description of camp concerts. Jean McPherson

37' 40" Song: Bungin' 'em in and blowin' 'em out. Wally Marshall

38' 10" Actuality: 1ZM American forces expeditionary station, Auckland 1944.

38' 50" July 1943 weekly health talks by 'radio doctor' start, run to 1984. Dr H B Turbott

40' 40" Reading from 'The Listener' of August 1945 on change in role of women during war.

41' 55" Peace brings expansion and another Mobile Unit but this time it records in New Zealand. Geoff Haggett

44' 00" Actuality: School choir song recorded by Mobile Unit.

44' 55" Actuality: 'Posers penalties and profits' which typifies big 'give-away' shows which are part of post-war boom in commercial radio. Selwyn Toogood

45' 15" Description of getting 'Posers penalties and profits' to air. Selwyn Toogood

46' 35" Songs 'Blue Smoke' and 'Paekakariki', first two songs on TANZA label which sees birth of New Zealand commercial recording industry in 1948.

47' 40" Letter about first Labour government's creation of licence fee and commercial revenue for expansion. Community role of commercial stations.

49' 40" When Director Shelley retires in 1949, X-class stations are providing hybrid commercial and non-commercial service to smaller centres. National orchestra is now well established and we are producing artists of international standard.

48' 20" Brahms' Rhapsody for piano and finale of Rachmaninov's second piano concerto. Richard Farrell, Colin Horsley

Part 4: 'Theatre of the mind' - The story of drama and the serials

0' 00" Actuality: 'A Panorama of New Zealand' 1938.

2' 15" A listener's letter about 'Jane', first drama broadcast on radio in New Zealand, 1928, 2YA Wellington.

2' 45" Actuality: first play specially designed for radio by BBC in 1924. Danger was first produced in New Zealand in 1929 but this excerpt is from 1996 Broadcasting House studio re-creation using 1920s' technology and techniques.

4' 00" Member of original 1929 cast of Danger recalls production techniques. Elsie Lloyd

6' 45" Early 1930s radio drama recalled. Selwyn Toogood

8' 15" First serials from America arrive here early 1930s. Peter Downes

9' 45" Actuality: Early serial The Japanese Houseboy.

10' 55" Actuality: First New Zealand produced commercial serial One Man's Family about 1937.

12' 00" One Man's Family recalled by members of original cast. Lawrie Constable, Selwyn Toogood, Elsie Lloyd

14' 10" Actuality: Long-running serial Dr Paul and design of serial as mainstay of commercial radio.

16' 30" Grace Gibson representative discusses Australian produced serials broadcast in New Zealand. Reg James

17' 45" Censorship of serials. Lawrie Constable

19' 20" Pressure on actors producing serials in Australia. Reg James

20' 50" An associate recalls Bernard Beeby, first head of NBS drama section formed, 1938. Bernard Kearns

21' 10" Actuality: Beeby producing in studio. Bernard Beeby

22' 10" Actuality: NBS war drama The Grey Ships Put To Sea.

23' 25" Writer G. Holder and wartime drama production recalled. Peter Harcourt

25' 55" Dress formal, regular drama scheduling and work for actors. Davina Whitehouse

27' 40" Actuality: Drama Jack Winter's dream by James K. Baxter.

29' 05" Summary of post-war drama development including role of new drama Head William Austin and international recognition of NZBC drama by 1960s. Roy Leywood

30' 55" By 1960s drama studios established in South Island. Bernard Kearns

32' 40" Actuality: Serial Life with Dexter.

34' 05" Actuality: The Archers of Ambridge, non-commercial BBC serial. This final episode made especially for New Zealand and broadcast in 1982.

34' 30" Increasing costs of Archers causes its demise in New Zealand. Peter Downes

36' 50" In 1960s and ‘70s actors earn living from radio drama. A kind of radio repertory company exists. Also sense of community with the theatre. Ginette McDonald

37' 25" 1970s sees change from British to more local writers. John O'Leary

39' 40" Large diversity of drama work for actors. Ginette McDonald

40' 45" New Zealand drama winning international awards by 1980s. John O'Leary

41' 40" Actuality: Award-winning An Angel hovering round by Richard Dingwall and produced by Ross Jolly.

42' 50" Daily routine of drama in 1970s and 1980s and colourful personalities. Ginette McDonald

45' 20" 'Broadcasts to schools' scripts good training for plays. Michael Wilson

46' 40" Sound FX gear in studio and on-microphone techniques. Everyone smokes. Ginette McDonald

48' 20" During 1980s drama increasingly seen as too expensive. John O'Leary

49' 30" Drama output decreases from lack of support and financial-cuts, John Craig

50' 55" Drama in mid 1990s a shadow of former self. Also severe staff cuts. But drama still thrives on international scene. Future directions. Carol Dee

52' 25" Strength of drama is its ability to look at all facets of human condition. John O'Leary

52' 55" Actuality: Roger Hall's comedy satire Gliding on staged in Broadcasting House Wellington.

Part 5: The Cinderella service - The story of news

0' 00" Montage of news presentation.

0' 45" No independent news service before 1962.

0' 55" 'Radio should keep people happy and ignorant' – quote from newspaper 1932.

1' 35" 1903 and 1923 legislation establishes radio as entertainment rather than informational.

1' 50" 'Radio should radiate happiness' – quote from 1920s.

2' 00" 1925 the Radio Broadcasting Company emphasises information.

2' 15" Quote from Radio Broadcasting Company's policy.

2' 50" Radio cannot broadcast controversy but government policies are broadcast because they are defined as non-controversial. This is how 'government hand-outs’ come to dominate information programmes. Bob Gregory

3' 40" Quote praising election coverage of 1928. But first election coverage was 1922.

4' 10" First regular information programme was News Hour, 7pm to 8pm, 1927.

4' 45" Description of Arch Curry reading news and how news was gathered for News Hour. Gerard Curran

7' 15" Quote from New Year's eve 1934 broadcast – 'no news because no newspapers'.

7' 20" After 1935, newly-elected Labour government takes over radio and uses as mouthpiece to balance unfavourable coverage in press.

7' 50" Actuality: Deputy Prime Minister Peter Fraser's Parliamentary speech defending Labour's radio policy.

9' 55" Compiling news in later 1930s. Derek Bayle

11' 00" Actuality: Ernest Le Grove reading his last bulletin after news reading career spanning from 1930s to 1960s. Ernest Le Grove

12' 20" Actuality: Theme of Radio News Reel from London.

12' 30" Actuality: Churchill war speech 'fight on beaches'...

12' 45" War news has BBC emphasis. 9pm summary each day and News in Maori.

13' 20" Post war news still mouthpiece of government. Bad for broadcasters and listeners. Jim Sullivan

13' 55" Efforts in 1950s to form better news service. Bert Hall

15' 30" Actuality: Prime Minister Sydney Holland's 'law and order' speech during 1951 waterfront dispute. Sydney Holland

16' 15" Actuality: Montage of excerpts from government 'mouthpiece' radio news bulletins on waterfront dispute.

17' 25" Actuality: Propaganda interview with 'housewife' during waterfront dispute.

19' 15" Actuality: News of the World, 1950s lab Auckland international news summary.

20' 10" Quote from book Broadcasting Grave and Gay by Ian Mackay – 'New Zealand news on YA stations worst in Commonwealth'.

20' 45" NZBC's first Director General describes lead-up and establishment of independent news service in 1962 and resistance by newspaper and political interests. Gilbert Stringer

24' 05" First independent news director describes staffing and cautious editorial approach of news service. Ben Cory

25' 35" Actuality: First independent radio news service bulletin.

26' 15" Description of lack of trust shown for each other by journalists and NZBC administration. Bob Gregory

29' 40" Political pressure by Robert Muldoon on Chairman of NZBC Walter McKinnon over coverage of new aluminium smelter at Tiwai Point. Ray Lilley

31' 00" Majority of NZBC Board were sympathetic to, or members of, National Party. This gives bad perception of impartiality. Bob Gregory

32' 05" First 'news follow up', News Review begins in evening. But resistance by programmers to equivalent in mornings because it would cause drop in music content. Bruce Broadhead

33' 10" Experienced journalists mostly drawn from newspapers. Network of newsrooms established around country. Peter Fabian

34' 20" Strongman mine disaster 1967 covered by Greymouth newsroom, a personal account by journalist. Jim Breeze

36' 20" Talks Department begins Radio Dispatch, forerunner of Checkpoint. Start of Current Affairs generally. Beverley Wakem

37' 05" Report programmes begin in 1975 in spite of opposition to curtailing breakfast session music. BBC's experience used to start radio equivalent of a morning national newspaper. Geoffrey Whitehead

38' 10" Actuality: Mid 1970s Morning Report.

38' 45" 1975 sees birth of stand-alone RNZ with expanded news and other services.

39' 00" Now have morning, midday, evening and weekend 'Reports'. Parliamentary radio press gallery formed. But cut-backs soon begin. Trevor Henry

40' 10" Demands on journalists during 1981 Springbok tour. Buzz Hart

40' 40" Actuality: Police and demonstrators conflict, Molesworth Street Wellington.

41' 10" Radio's Director General during tour, Geoffrey Whitehead, wonders if radio's comprehensive coverage is right thing to do. Radio has more 'live' coverage than TV. Some radio staff attacked on street. Ray Lilley

43' 25" Actuality: 'More FM' news introduction.

43' 35" Development of private news services and IRN (Independent Radio News). Difficulties and eventual networking and satellite feeds. Ray Lilley

46' 10" Growth of IRN which now serves 90% of stations, i.e. 170 stations in deregulated market. Barry Soper

47' 00" Growth of Maori news through Mana News. Far sharper Maori focus. Example of breaking 'fiscal envelope' story. Chris Wikaira

49' 35" Changing styles of news reading from 1960s onwards. Peter Fry

50' 30" Resistance to female newsreaders in early 1970s. Lee Hatherly

52' 05" News in 1990s faces politics of purse string rather than fears about direct political interference.

52' 40" In election year, politicians will put warning shots across bows of radio news. Ray Lilley

54' 00" Montage of news introductions and summary of radio news' strengths. Geoffrey Whitehead

Part 6: The golden years - The broad picture 1949 to 1970

0' 05" New Zealand Listener quote in praise of radio coverage of 1950 Commonwealth Games held in Auckland.

0' 15" Games are biggest radio event ever in New Zealand introducing new technology.

0' 50" Actuality: 1950 Commonwealth Games.

1' 50" Actuality: Opening of shortwave service September 1948.

2' 35" Shortwave receivers sent to Pacific Islands to promote new shortwave service. Harold Taylor-Smith

3' 50" Actuality: NZBS Concert Party 1952 at Papakura camp entertaining troops bound for Korean war.

5' 20" Actuality: Announcement of Hillary's conquest of Everest 2nd June 1953. Keith Holyoake

6' 05" Actuality: Eye witness account of Queen Elizabeth progress to Parliament during 1953/54 visit here.

7' 20" Actuality: Tangiwai disaster Christmas Eve 1953 including description of disaster scene at washed-away rail bridge where train went into river. Lionel Sceats

8' 50" Actuality: Take It From Here opening of BBC comedy.

9' 20" Actuality: Radio Roadhouse. Began production in Auckland 1952.

10' 30" Brief history of broadcasts to schools to early 1950s by then Head of Schools' Broadcasts. Jean Combs

12' 00" BBC education series on evolution banned on broadcasts to schools 1947.

12' 40" Song from musical Kiss Me Kate.

13' 10" Careful watch kept on sexual morality content in music on radio. Peter Downes

14' 00" 33 and113rpm and 45rpm replacing 78 speed records in mid 1950s.

14' 10" Song: Rock Around the Clock.

14' 40" Impact of rock 'n' roll on radio programmers. Peter Downes

15' 55" Song: Tutti Frutti.

16' 10" Tutti Frutti banned on radio because of lyrics. Peter Downes

17' 20" Rural broadcasters cover country by region. Fred Barnes

19' 00" Mobil Song Quest launched 1956.

19' 20" Song which helps Kiri te Kanawa into finals of Mobil Song Quest 1965.

20' 00" Commercial Sunday Showcase described. Brian Salkeld

21' 45" Aria from Mozart's II Seraglio specially produced for Sunday Showcase in 1959 featuring National Orchestra and local soloists.

22' 40" Actuality: Saturday Night At Home (SNAH), with compere Gary Chapman, the non-commercial answer to Sunday Showcase.

23' 25" Saturday Night At Home described. Gary Chapman, Peter Downes

25' 15" Actuality: Speech ending NZBS and beginning new Corporation, NZBC, 31 March 1962. Arthur Kinsella

26' 40" New NZBC develops TV using existing funding from radio. Gilbert Stringer

27' 40" Early 1960s are turning point for personality radio. Rocky Duche

28' 25" Development of radio disc jockeys and hit parades; Impact of TV changes radio programming. Neville Chamberlain

32' 40" Clash between radio personalities and administration married to old ways. Neville Chamberlain

33' 30" Transistor technology makes radio more portable and helps fight impact of TV.

34' 10" Qualities and uses of transistor radios summed up. Marama Martin

35' 15" List of overseas artists who visit in 1960s and are broadcast.

35' 45" Innovations: 1963 Broadcasting House in Wellington opens. 1964 National Programme begins. Independent news service from 1962.

36' 00" Development of Current Affairs, mainly 1967 onwards with Checkpoint, for example Aspect. Alwyn Owen

38' 25" Actuality: Open Country by Jim Henderson.

39' 10" Talks Department staffed by vital, stimulating people, ideas melting pot. Beverley Wakem

40' 50" 17 April 1968 Interisland ferry Wahine sinks, radio at its best. Beverley Wakem

41' 10" Actuality: Account of Wahine in trouble. Paddy O'Donnell

42' 20" NZBC Training Centre honed skills in announcing, technical, journalism and programming but did not create clones of the BBC. Haydn Sherley

44' 45" Introduction of 'talkback' radio from America in 1965. First tried out in Masterton with Jessica Weddell. Prudence Gregory

45' 30" Actuality: Person to Person 2ZB Wellington 4 October 1965. First talkback on Person to Person.

46' 15" Development of women's programmes. Inception of National Programme mid-1960s sees Feminine Viewpoint start, then became Viewpoint. Barbara Basham

47' 00" Uphill battle for female employees: examples of prejudice towards women broadcasters.

47' 35" Women getting behind microphone in increasing numbers and doing wide range of work. Marama Martin

48' 50" Actuality: Advertisement introducing decimal currency.

49' 20" 10 November 1966 Hauraki pirates sail from Auckland and begin new era in radio.

49' 50" Actuality: Hauraki on air and motives behind pirates launching Hauraki. Derek Lowe

Part 7: Tuning up - The story of the YC stations, Concert Programme and the Symphony Orchestra

0' 00" Actuality: Concert FM classical chart 1999.

0' 40" Concert FM very different from YC stations 50 years ago.

1' 15" Actuality: 3YA studio orchestra's last concert 1945.

1' 25" Contrast in standard between old YA studio orchestras and new National Orchestra launched 1946. Peter Downes

2' 05" Actuality: First concert by National Orchestra, March 6 1947.

2' 50" Professional orchestras begin with cinema in 1920s. Radio absorbs players in 1930s. Geoffrey Newson

4' 40" Actuality: Speech launching orchestra showing attitude of Labour government. Walter Nash

5' 35" Genesis of YC serious music stations in 1931 as alternatives to YAs. Peter Downes

6' 35" Increased station power allows stations to specialise. We adopt BBC Third Programme model. Bill Yates

8' 50" YC stations allow much more flexible programming of serious music. Also change the style of script writing on YCs. Peter Downes

10' 40" Example of YC script 1950s.

11' 05" Orchestra now broadcast live needs score readers to judge dynamic range. 1958 new improved microphones used with Orchestra and violinist David Oistrakh.

13' 20" David Oistrakh plays (not original 1958 concert). Peter Averi

13' 50" Possible to link YC stations by early 1950s. John Schroeder

14' 35" Early 1960s permanent YC network forms but needs complicated programme schedules. YCs have rigorous presentation standards. Peter Averi

17' 30" Orchestra makes first commercial recording in 1959.

17' 55" 1959 new conductor John Hopkins launches National Youth Orchestra. John Hopkins

19' 10" 1961 John Hopkins founds orchestra trainees scheme later known as Schola Musica. Ashley Heenan

20' 15" Actuality: YC presentation. Bill Toft

20' 35" Guidelines and programme balance on evening yes. Peter Averi

22' 15" Extract from official instructions to YC announcers.

23' 15" Radio provides outlet for lesser known works by Orchestra. Peter Averi

24' 00" Poetry starts on YCs in late 1950s, producer English poet Peter Bland. Elizabeth Alley

24' 25" Actuality: Introduction to programme Poetry. Peter Bland

24' 45" In Talking About Poetry poets read own work instead of actors. Elizabeth Alley

25' 25" Actuality: Reading of own work. The Priests of Serrabonne. Owen Leeming

25' 40" David Delaney begins Writers in which New Zealand writers talk about their work. We are envied by other countries. Elizabeth Alley

26' 55" Early interview with New Zealand author Janet Frame. Janet Frame

27' 25" YC poetry and literature programmes, and readings and plays by Drama Department have contributed to high literature awareness in New Zealand. Elizabeth Alley

28' 20" Science, politics, economics, history talks also on YCs. But when network reformatted in 1990s spoken material moved to National Programme.

28' 50" 1975 orchestra re-named New Zealand Symphony Orchestra. First overseas tour to Australia in 1974.

29' 30" Humorous story of travel by orchestra within New Zealand. Clare Galambos Winter

31' 40" Actuality: 1966 Proms rehearsal by Arthur Fiedler with National Orchestra. Arthur Fiedler

32' 30" Birth of Summer Pops with lighter material. Peter Nisbet

33' 15" Reaction of orchestra members to Pops. John Dodds

33' 50" Appraisal of skills of English conductor and jazz man Johnny Dankworth. John Dodds

34' 25" During 1960s-1970s, Music Section serviced YCs and orchestra and developed New Zealand artists. Also responsible for visiting artists. Helen Young

36' 15" 1975 Concert Programme broadens and becomes more popular. Beverley Wakem

37' 40" By late 1970s ratings versus standards worrying Concert Programme. Also budget cuts. Culmination of philistine attitudes typified in mid-1990s by destruction of Wellington's Broadcasting House which housed some of finest studios in Australasia. Helen Young

39' 20" Early problems of YC/Concert Programme is fragmentary multi-use of YCs for sport and Parliament. Not sorted out till late 1980s. Patrick Day

40' 45" Early 1980s idea of looking at overseas models where 'FM music' stations are supported commercially. Beverley Wakem

41' 10" Concert Programme Manager goes to USA and UK to look at commercial classical stations but advised not to pursue this form. Back in New Zealand, Friends Of Concert Programme now a force to be reckoned with. Helen Young

43' 25"  Concert audience too small to support advertising base but non-commercial survival of Concert Programme made election issue by rampant Friends Of Concert Programme. Commercial idea dropped. Beverley Wakem

44' 45" Mid-1980s saw extended hours, sport dropped, adoption of FM: All strengthen Concert network. Helen Young

45' 55" Actuality: 1990s Concert FM Disc Drive – 'concert in a car'.

46' 50" Post-war high regard for orchestra diminishes and becomes financial millstone for radio in 1970s-1980s. Patrick Day

49' 40" Orchestra becomes State Owned Enterprise in1988 and separately funded.

50' 00" Orchestra more than just a workplace, also home. Clare Galambos Winter

Part 8: Te Reo o te Tangata Whenua 'The voice of the people of the land' - the story of Maori radio

0' 00" Ngati Poneke Concert party recorded early 1950s.

0' 55" Excerpt from 'Radio Record' advertising radio pageant celebrating Waitangi day 1928.

1' 05" 1920s radio pageants were 'noble savage', indigenous entertainment in mood of the times. Henare te Ua

1' 40" Radio was Pakeha technology. 80 percent of Maori were rural with few radios. But pageants were fine entertainment and continued into 1930s.

2' 25" 1937 Maori announcers appointed in main centres by Commercial Radio Head Colin Scrimgeour.

2' 30" Actuality: Maori programme script about 1937. Airini Grennell

3' 15" Song: Beneath the Maori Moon. Lou Paul

3' 40" Actuality: Message from London 1942. Kingi Tahiwi

4' 45" Promotion of Maori announcers partly as result of pressure from Ratana church.

5' 05" Little altruism in Maori appointments, more tokenism. But helps awareness of Maori culture. Henare te Ua

6' 40" Actuality: Eulogy to Sir Tui Carroll. Wiremu (Bill) Parker

7' 00" How weekly Maori news bulletin begin in 1942. Wiremu Parker

7' 45" Huge impact on Maori rural audience of Parker's bulletins during war. Henare te Ua

10' 00" Story involving Maori Bishop Bennett, radio Director Shelley and Wiremu Parker. Illustrates radio news policy during war. Henare te Ua

12' 20" Actuality: Welcome home ceremony for 28th Battalion. Wiremu Parker

13' 00" Actuality: Te Reo O te Maori. Ted Nepia

13' 15" Mid-1950s Ted Nepia starts first topical Maori programme, Te Reo O te Maori

15' 00" 1960 rugby tour of South Africa – 'No Maori no tour' controversy. Political decision not to cover controversy on Maori news. Henare te Ua

16' 15" Actuality: 'Rinso' washing powder advertisement in Maori.

16' 45" Account of late 1960s edict to anglicise Maori Place names. Edict disobeyed. Henare te Ua

18' 45" Maori make radio needs known to new Gisborne Station Manager. Leo Fowler

19' 35" Early 1960s Fowler and Wiremu (Bill) Kerekere set up first Maori radio section in Wellington.

19' 45" Outside Broadcast recording protocols on East coast. Wiremu Kerekere

22' 25" Actuality: Te Puna Wai Korero, 1971. Selwyn Muru

23' 40" Actuality: Journey down Waikato river with kaumatua. Rua Cooper accompanied by Haare Williams. Haare Williams, Rua Cooper

24' 55" 1973 Adam Report recommends Maori broadcasting should be expanded and include Pacific Islands.

25' 25" NZBC's Radio Polynesia at Papatoetoe short-lived. Te Upoko O te Ika starts in Wellington. Beverley Wakem

27' 55" Piripi Walker seconded from NZBC to set up Te Upoko O te Ika radio station in Wellington. Piripi Walker

28' 40" Actuality: Radio Te Upoko O te Ika.

28' 50" Description of start of Te Upoko O te Ika and reaction of listeners. Erana Hemmingsen

30' 15" 1979 start of Radio Pacific in south Auckland with Maori I Pacific focus but station fails and later becomes mainstream commercial. Gordon Dryden

32' 55" Actuality: Opening of NZBC's Maori and Pacific Unit 1979.

33' 15" Maori and Pacific Unit's programmes reach Pacific via shortwave service and are well received in Tonga. Henare te Ua

36' 05" 1984 Economic Summit recommends new Maori stations.

36' 15" Public Radio concept of 'spine' service throughout country with local stations connected as required. But concept attacked by Maori. Beverley Wakem

37' 15" Concept of Iwi stations introduced instead of 'spine' concept. Whatarangi Winiata

38' 10" Setting up Iwi station in Hokianga. Cyril Chapman

40' 00" Emphasis on Maori language radio too narrow. Maori radio needs broader support. Government's 'shoestring' approach not good enough. Derek Fox

41' 55" 1988 Maori injunction freezes broadcasting assets. Description of heated meeting with State Owned Enterprises Minister Stan Roger and officials. Derek Fox

45' 45" Asset freeze hits Public Radio hard. Public Radio has to fight Maori and is wasteful of time and money. Beverley Wakem

47' 00" Public Radio has smaller role in Maori radio with rise of Iwi stations.

47' 25" Tribute to Te Reo o Aotearoa and its place in the history of Maori and Pacific radio. Henare te Ua

48' 30" Ngati Poneke Concert Party recorded early 1950s.

Part 9: Hauraki at sea - The beginning of private radio

0' 00" Actuality: Pirate radio ship MV Tiri aground off Great Barrier island, night of 28 January 1968. Paul Lineham

1' 50" NZBC responsible for issuing radio licences after 1962 but does little to set up competition against itself.

2' 25" Actuality: Radio Hauraki.

2' 40" Older politicians don't like young people bucking radio system. Derek Lowe

3' 07" Pirates keep plans secret from politicians and officials because control of broadcasting at stake. Derek Lowe

3' 40" Mid 1960s time of change. Post-war generation challenging old ways.

4' 25" Pirate radio seems easy – just get some money arid a boat. MV Tiri found but is dilapidated hulk and needs much work. (Speakers for rest of programme are mostly undesignated)

6' 15" Poor condition of Tiri used to delay pirates by Marine Department.

6' 25" Key role of Jack Scott, Minister of Broadcasting, Marine, and Postmaster General.

7' 10" Scott unofficially on pirate's side. Would help but has to be seen to toe government line.

7' 55" Description of upgrading and equipment needed on Tiri.

9' 00" Transmitter kept hidden. Exciting adventure.

9' 50" Pirates get financial support but also need to keep public interested.

10' 55" Never going to get seaworthy certificate so decide to put to sea anyway.

11' 10" Dramatic story of attempt to sail out of Auckland harbour but run aground at low tide and police lower viaduct to block Tiri. Brawl on board with police. Large crowd of pirate supporters. Tiri sails but arrested by police launch. Crowd harass police.

18' 10" Crowd at waterfront probably New Zealand's first mass youth protest.

18' 35" Humiliating processing at Auckland police station. Bail granted. Pie cart story. Court appearance pending.

20' 35" Auckland Town Hall emotive public meeting in support of pirates. Near riot at bottom of Queen St.

23' 00" Pirates win court case and Tiri sails quietly for Hauraki Gulf.

24' 05" Actuality: Test transmission from Tiri. Good signal and plenty positive audience feedback.

26' 20" Tough conditions at sea take toll of transmitter masts.

27' 05" Lead-up and grounding of Tiri off Great Barrier island.

28' 20" Actuality: Radio Hauraki describing Tiri's plight on rocks and abandon ship. Paul Lineham

30' 40" Actuality: Hauraki on rocks – (unique in annals of our radio history.)

31' 30" Back to square one. Tiri is beyond repair. New ship supplied by financial backer Jim Frankham and one month later Tiri 2 back at sea.

32' 10" Actuality: Radio Hauraki.

32' 45" Description of Tiri 2 hit by Wahine storm 10 April 1968.

35' 30" Smooth sailing for next 15 months but still arguing case for a land licence. Government finally introduces legislation making Hauraki legal.

36' 20" Actuality: On air goodbyes Born Free sung by Matt Munro at end of Hauraki's last day at sea 1 June 1970 after one hundred and eleven days at sea. Ian Magan

36' 45" 2 June 1970 Hauraki disc jockey Rick Grant falls overboard and is drowned as Tiri 2 returns to land for Mayoral Reception.

37' 55" Hauraki starts broadcasting legally from land in August 1970.

Part 10: Public versus private - The broad picture 1970 - 1996

0' 00" Actuality: 2ZB Wellington breakfast session 1972. Lindsay Yeo

0' 40" Wellington's Broadcasting House has state of art Toshiba equipment.

1' 20" Broadcasting House first fully transistorised broadcasting centre in world. Eleven on-air suites and five studios. Demolition in 1997 is act of vandalism by politicians.

2' 30" 1973 demonstration of sophisticated control of sound using latest portable tape recorders and microphones. David Delaney

3' 50" Portable technology gives birth to long-running Spectrum documentary series about people places and events in New Zealand. Alwyn Owen

4' 30" Actuality: Excerpts from early Spectrum episodes. George Davies, Jack Perkins

5' 35" Actuality: Wayne Mowat jingle for commercial Tonight Show later 1970s.

5' 45" Tonight Show network created mid-1970s in response to private radio and to cut costs. Wayne Mowat

5' 35" 1973 legislation creates a stand-alone Radio New Zealand (RNZ) with flexibility to compete with private radio.

8' 05" Learning how to make money in private radio. Impact of personalised advertising. Big money in Auckland market in early 1970s. Tim Bickerstaff

10' 05" Stand-alone status of RNZ ended by mid-1970s. Radio under new umbrella of Broadcasting Corporation of New Zealand (BCNZ), alongside TV. Private radio licences now allocated by Broadcasting Tribunal.

10' 50" Battle joined in Tribunal between privates wanting more stations and Public radio disputing the need. Derek Lowe

11' 35" Public radio competes well but privates claim that public radio is using licence fee money to prop up its commercial stations. Privates also argue that State has no place in commercial radio. Beverley Wakem

12' 25" Privates see need to allow free market to work and therefore no need for tax-funded state radio. Tribunal process slow. Some wait two years for licence. Derek Lowe

13' 10" Changes on non-commercial side also: Report programmes start in 1975. YCs extend hours and rename Concert Programme.

13' 30" All Things Considered morning show with Peter Latham begins personality radio on non-commercial side. Announcers no longer rostered on rotation; personality slots instead. Beverley Wakem

14' 00" Sharon Crosbie takes over from Peter Latham on All Things Considered. Sharon Crosbie

15' 00" Actuality: All Things Considered with Sharon Crosbie. Sharon Crosbie

16' 05" Audience complaints about Crosbie but show soon settles down and flourishes. Peter Downes

17' 15" Cuts to public radio funding have severe effects on programme budgets. Peter Downes

18' 00" Prime Minister Muldoon refuses to increase licence fee 1975 to 1984 through years when inflation highest in history. Licence fee funding drops from 50 percent of total funding in 1975 to 18 percent in 1984. Therefore revenue from commercial sources greatly emphasised. Patrick Day

18' 45" 1980s see challenge to commercial public radio and financial pressure. Privates more adaptive and better commercial operators there


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Archival Audio from: Sound Archives Ngā Taonga Kōrero

External links

Sources and references

Blackburn, Adrian (1974) The Shoestring Pirates. Auckland, Hodder and Stoughton

Collins, Ken G. (1967) Broadcasting grave and gay, Christchurch, Caxton Press

Day, Patrick (1994) The radio years: a history of broadcasting in New Zealand, Auckland, Auckland University Press and Broadcasting History Trust, (forthcoming), Voice and vision: a history of broadcasting in New Zealand V.2

Downes, Peter Collected Papers. (private Collection).

Downes, Peter and Harcourt, Peter (1976) Voices In The Air: radio broadcasting in New Zealand: a documentary. Wellington, Methuen and Radio New Zealand

Gregory, R. J. (1985) Politics and broadcasting: before and beyond the NZBC, Palmerston North, The Dunmore Press

Hay, David Robert (1999) Broadcasting Policy Advice 1986-88: a critical evaluation of New Zealand's broadcasting policy framework, (Unpublished MPP thesis, Victoria University of Wellington )

Lemke, Claudia (1995) Maori involvement in sound recording and broadcasting 1919 to 1958 (Unpublished MA thesis, University of Auckland)

Mackay, Ian K. (1953) Broadcasting In New Zealand, Wellington, Reed

Sullivan, Jim (1987) A history of broadcasting news, Timaru, Radio New Zealand Archives

Tonks, Joy (1996) Bravo! The NZSO at 50, .Auckland, Exisle Publishing

Watson, Chris and Shuker, Roy (1998) In the public good? Censorship in New Zealand, Palmerston North, The Dunmore Press

Wilson, Helen (ed) (1994) The radio book 1994, Christchurch, New Zealand Broadcasting School, Christchurch Polytechnic.

Sound Sources

Beatson, Donna (199?) A history of Maori radio, New Zealand Broadcasting School, Christchurch Polytechnic.

Downes, Peter, et al (1975) A history of radio (5 parts). Sound Archives! Nga Taonga Korero

Jensen, Owen A history of the YC Stations and the Concert Programme, Sound Archives Nga Taonga Korero

Lee, Michael (1996) A history of radio news, 'Insight' documentary. Sound Archives! Nga Taonga Korero

Owen, Alwyn and Perkins Jack Spectrum documentary series 1972-1996, National Radio Sound Archives! Nga Taonga Korero

Rose, Maxine (1996), A history of the Symphony Orchestra, Sound Archives! Nga Taonga Korero

Sullivan, Jim (199?) The news before the news, Sound Archives! Nga Taonga Korero

Twenty-five years between (a history of radio produced in the early 1950s), Sound Archives Nga Taonga Korero

Contents of the programmes

The contents listed by running time, detail of material and name of the person speaking, where applicable.

Part 1: A stirring thrills the air - the broad picture 1921-1935

Part 2: The on-air game - The story of radio sport 1921-1996

Part 3: Politics, war and progress  - The broad picture 1935 - 1949

Part 4: 'Theatre of the mind' - The story of drama and the serials

Part 5: The Cinderella service - The story of news

Part 6: The golden years - The broad picture 1949 to 1970

Part 7: Tuning up - The story of the YC stations, Concert Programme and the Symphony Orchestra

Part 8: Te Reo o te Tangata Whenua 'The voice of the people of the land' - the story of Maori radio

Part 9: Hauraki at sea - The beginning of private radio

Part 10: Public versus private - The broad picture 1970 - 1996