The rise, the fall and to some extent - the survival - of New Zealand's provinces are explored in a new book by historian Andre Brett.
From breaking in land, establishing roads, rail and infrastructure against a backdrop of the Māori Land Wars, Acknowledge No Frontier, covers the period from 1853 to 1876.
It was a short-lived period of self governance for six key provincial areas.
So what were they dealing with? And what have been the lasting impacts?
Dr Brett, who teaches history at Melbourne University, talks to Kathryn Ryan, and answers these questions.