The wasteful duplication of expertise and training has been identified a threat to the medical workforce.
The Simpson review of the health system says if the many groups doing training don't cooperate, then tighter regulation might be needed.
It falls short of recommending that.
The Council of Medical Colleges, which help train 15 medical specialities, says it's vital to get a national plan for training.
Some colleges such as Emergency medicine have no problem recruiting junior doctors, while others are constantly short of numbers, including for GPs and in public health which tracks pandemics.
The college council chair is Dr John Bonning.