Warning: Some details in this report are confronting.
The cruel treatment of boys in social welfare homes in the 1970s and 1980s has been graphically outlined at the Royal Commission investigating abuse in state care.
One man who spent many years advocating on behalf of children in care outlined examples of boys being beaten, humiliated, and deprived of any rights, legal help or family support.
Dr Oliver Sutherland was giving evidence on day three of the Commission's inquiry.
RNZ reporter Andrew McRae has been at the hearing in Auckland.