Pacific leaders have been told they have to get tough in the battle against corruption.
Former Papua New Guinea chief justice, Sir Arnold Amet, in New Zealand for the annual Pacific Co-operation Foundation lecture, has spoken on the challenges facing constitutional democracy in the Pacific.
Sir Arnold says the prime challenge is the unethical and corrupt behaviour of leaders in the region which has weakened and compromised the work of public institutions.
And he says donor assistance, such as Australia's efforts in PNG through the Enhanced Cooperation Package, will not revitalise these institutions.
"No amount of external aid, no amount of external consultancies, will help that. They can only be temporary and assist, but if we [must] get ahold of these challenges ourselves in each of our countries in the region and be tough with ourselves."