Governor Scott Walker (Republican) of the US state of Wisconsin, has become the first governor in US history to survive a rare recall election.
His opponent, Milwaukee Mayor Tom Barrett, whom he beat in 2010, has conceded the race.
A recall election allows voters to remove an elected official from office before his or her term has ended.
Mr Walker, 44, won 54% of the vote. He polarised opinion in 2011 with new laws restricting the bargainning rights of public sector trade unions and by forcing public sector employees to contribute more to their pensions.
After the result of the ballot on Wednesday, Mr Walker said his stance had been vindicated.
The only two previous recall efforts against sitting governors were Lynn Frazier in North Dakota in 1921 and Gray Davis in California in 2003. Both governors lost.